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Title: Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) of Acute Respiratory Infections (ARIs) for healthcare workers (HCWs) in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs
Keywords: Public Health
Knowledge, attitude and practice
Country: Indonesia
Institution: Germany - Center for International Health at the Ludwig-Maximilian-Universität München
Course coordinator: Lisa Hoffäller
About duration and dates: Start date: TBA; Duration: 45 hours (1 month) Synchronous contact hours: 9 hours; eLearning/self-study: 30 hours; Exam/Final Project preparation: 6 hours
Classification: advanced optional
Mode of delivery: Distance-based
Course location: Virtual Module

For further information please contact: Dr. Bernarda Espinoza:
ECTS credit points: 1.5 ECTS credits
SIT: ● Synchronous contact hours: 9 h
2 h introductory online group session; 4 h group work; 3 h final presentations & debriefing
● eLearning/self-study: 30 hours
2 h pre-reading (= 20 h in total), 1 h videos (= 10 h in total)
● Exam/Final project preparation hours: 6 h
3 hrs exam preparation; 3 h final project preparation
Language: Spanish
Description: At the end of the module, the student should be able to…

a) name and correctly identify the general pathophysiologic mechanisms of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) thus recognizing the grounds and purposes of specific prevention and control measures.

b) describe and categorize acute respiratory infection prevention and control measures and strategies (e.g. engineering and administrative measures, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), etc.) specific to the risk of contagion and transmission mechanisms that should be observed in the different healthcare-related contexts (direct patient management and transport, laboratory sample handling, etc.).

c) develop a teaching plan for a specific target group demonstrating the correct execution of control and prevention measures in strict compliance with valid norms and standards (e.g. PPE Donning and Doffing, handling of contaminated samples, hand hygiene, etc.), formulating straightforward learning objectives and instructing the target group about the skill to be learned.
Assessment Procedures: The participant’s performance assessment occurs threefold:

1) Formative assessment: Interactive assessment tools and elements (H5P) will be incorporated alongside the presentation of the content, different scenarios and settings to evaluate the overall participant’s performance during the course, including the comprehension and critical analysis of the readings. These elements comprise mostly interactive videos and interactive course presentations which will be evaluated, graded and weighted with 20% of the final grade.

2) Summary peer and expert assessment: The correct implementation and transmission of norms and standards aiming at safeguarding healthcare personnel’ workplaces will be assessed based on a final project prepared in groups (up to 4 participants per groups) demonstrating the adequate execution of a relevant measure or multi-step process, (e.g. EPP donning and doffing, proper hand hygiene) by developing a teaching plan aimed at a specific target group. This final project will be presented during a last synchronous session and will be evaluated jointly by peers and instructors. This grade will account for 30% of the final grade.

3) Summary e-assessment: Lastly, participants will have to complete a final evaluation comprising 20 multiple or single-choice questions, accounting for the remaining 50% of the final grade.

To complete the course, participants will have to pass each assessment with at least 60% of the total.
Content: The course comprises 12 units in total:

1. Introductory Online Group Session (2 h; synchronous)
Introduction to the platform, course requirements and conditions, syllabus, instructors and participants. Due to the asynchronous structure of the following sessions, important submission and evaluation dates will be agreed upon. Introductory discussion about the content.

2. Introduction: Acute respiratory infections in a nutshell (2 h pre-reading, 1 h interactive video, asynchronous)
Participants will become familiar with the concept of Acute Respiratory Infections: state of the art information about pathophysiologic mechanisms of infection and diagnostics, symptomatology and community prevention measures based on the example of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic will be presented. This should lay the foundations for the proper understanding of the purposes of specific infection prevention and control measures which will be addressed in the following scenarios.

3. Workplace risks and hazards & infection prevention and control (2 h pre-reading, 1 h interactive video, asynchronous)
Comprises the conceptual approach to the notions of hazards, risks and risk control in the workplace (such as hazard elimination and substitution, administrative and engineering controls, PPE, etc.) as well as aspects of infection prevention and control that should be considered in any healthcare-related context to safeguard healthcare workers and patients alike (for example standard precautions with an emphasis on hand hygiene and additional precautions depending on the pathogen’s transmission mechanisms). The contents of this conceptual approach will serve as a basis on which the subsequent units will be based upon thus reinforcing, deepening and contextualizing them in combination with the knowledge acquired in Unit 1. This section also introduces the story on which the interactive videos are based upon: the story of Mr Fuentes, a 45-year-old COVID-19 patient who attends the primary healthcare unit and witnesses a series of actions that have been undertaken to protect healthcare workers and other patients.

4. Infection prevention and control and Patients Transport (2 h pre-reading, 1 h interactive video, asynchronous)
This section elaborates on the infection prevention and control measures that should be considered when transporting confirmed or suspected patients aiming at safeguarding workers carrying out functions in this area.

5. Correct use of the Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) (2 h pre-reading, 1 h interactive video, asynchronous)
Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) strategies to prevent or limit transmission in health care settings include rational, correct, and consistent use of PPE. The efficacy of PPE depends strongly on adequate and regular supplies, adequate staff training, proper hand hygiene, and compliant use according to its specifications. Participants are instructed on the proper use and specific functions of the PPE when in contact with patients who have contracted an acute respiratory infection on the basis of educational interactive videos and literature reviews.

6. Infection prevention and control in laboratories and radiology (2 h pre-reading, 1 h interactive video, asynchronous)
All samples collected for laboratory analysis should
be regarded as potentially infectious. Health care workers who collect, handle, and/or transport clinical samples should adhere rigorously to the precautionary measures and biosafety practices to minimize their exposure to pathogens. Therefore, this chapter includes proper infection prevention and control measures in the context of laboratories such as PCR-Testing, sample handling, biosafety levels, PPE, among others.
Also, the implementation of empiric additional precautions should be implemented as IPC strategies. For example, avoiding the patients’ transport and using portable X-ray equipment has become mandatory for several pathologic presentations. In this chapter, participants will be also instructed on proper measures in the radiology area.

7. Cleaning and Laundry in the context of COVID-19 (2 h pre-reading, 1 h interactive video, asynchronous)
Within IPC strategies, environmental and engineering controls, such as cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces applying commonly used hospital disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite) and proper handling of infectious laundry is effective and sufficient. This section addresses precautions and standards for cleaning and laundry services within a hospital setting.

8. Infection prevention and control in the Intensive Care Unit (2 h prereading, 1 h interactive video, asynchronous)
Due to the complexity of the procedures performed there, the care of patients in the ICU requires a high degree of observance of administrative and engineering measures as well as standard, contact and respiratory precautions to safeguard healthcare workers in an, especially exposed environment. This unit examines the specific PCI measures that should be considered when working in the ICU.

9. Mortuary and Corpse Management (2 h pre-reading, 1 h interactive video, asynchronous)
Due to the characteristics of several acute respiratory infections and the seriousness of its implications for human health, special attention is required in the handling of the bodies of those who died in consequence of an acute respiratory infection. Familiar, religious and cultural considerations surrounding death must also be taken into account. This unit reflects some of the aspects surrounding mortuary care and post-mortem examination.

10. Addressing mental health (2 h pre-reading, 1 h interactive video, asynchronous)
Several guidelines have been published to support health workers in dealing with mental health risk situations in times of emergencies and disasters, including pandemics. Based on these guidelines, this chapter provides some suggestions for "taking care of yourself and encouraging others to take care of themselves to maintain their ability to care for patients" (WHO 2020)

11. How to teach a practical skill? (2 h pre-reading, 1 h interactive video, asynchronous)
This section focuses on the reproduction of the knowledge acquired in this course (or any action-oriented knowledge). Based on Peyton’s Four-Step Approach for Skill Teaching, this unit will inform participants about effective skill teaching strategies and aspects such as formulating learning objectives, defining target groups and designing a teaching plan for them to prepare their Final Projects. This will be combined with the reinforcement of the importance of two basic measures for infection prevention and control: proper hand hygiene and correct PPE donning and especially doffing.

12. Final Project Presentation and Debriefing (3 h, synchronous)
Participants will have the opportunity to present the results of their Final Project and receive feedback from peers and instructors. During this last unit discussions about the content, the structure and the course itself while be facilitated.
Methods: This course is based on a Case-based Learning (CBL) multiple scenario structure supported by the ARIPE (a.k.a. AVIVA or APIPA) Model. In contrast to other online courses, knowledge acquisition is not restricted to prereading and discussion, pre-recorded or live lectures, or automated evaluation: Participants will be actively engaged with the content of the course by combining the knowledge acquisition with its interactive application and implementation, further increasing the learning effectiveness. Participants will also have the opportunity to engage with their peers while preparing their Final Project thus exercising collaborative and social skills.

This 100 % online scenario-based course will be hosted on a Moodle Platform, allowing the combined use of H5P interactive elements. Additional support will be provided by animated videos created with Vyond and Zoom sessions for the synchronous meetings.
Prerequisites: Participant requisites:
This courses primarily targets medical students, as well as students from areas such as Public Health, Epidemiology and other related areas interested in Disease Management and Infection Prevention and Control.

This course is also directed at healthcare professionals and technicians working in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) performing activities which involve direct contact to either patients, samples or infectious areas or objects.

This course also targets instructors in the field of healthcare and other health-related areas aiming at replicating and adapting the conveyed information for use in their classrooms, thus extending the benefits to a broader audience.

Framework requisites:
● Internet access
● Access to the Moodle Platform
● Video-recording smartphone or other similar devices (for the evaluation)
● Proof of English language fluency (English version): tropEd students from an accredited tropEd home institution who have passed a core course in English will be considered sufficiently fluent in the English language. Also, students who can provide proof of academic education at Bachelor’s level passed in English will be considered sufficiently fluent. Applicants not being able to fulfil either of these criteria will be asked to prove fluency by a TOEFL (iBT score >= 79) or IELTS (score >=6.0).
● Proof of Spanish language fluency (Spanish version): Native speakers and students who can provide proof of academic education at Bachelor’s level passed in Spanish will be considered sufficiently fluent.
Attendance: 30 students. The number of tropEd students ist not limited.
Selection: First come First serve
Fees: 200€
Scholarships: None
tropEd accreditation: Online GA Oct 2020: cat 1
Remarks: Bibliographic support: current norms, standards and recommendations issued by relevant international organizations such as WHO, PAHO, NIOSH (CDC), ILO, etc. as well as biosafety procedures and regulations in force provided by the LMU Klinikum. State of the art studies and scientific papers will be also included.

Technical support: Moodle-based interactive course with H5P enabled elements (interactive videos, dialogue cards, course presentations, etc.).
Email Address:
Date Of Record Creation: 2020-11-19 05:17:19 (W3C-DTF)
Date Of Record Release: 2020-11-20 11:45:19 (W3C-DTF)
Date Record Checked: 2020-11-19 (W3C-DTF)
Date Last Modified: 2023-06-01 09:25:36 (W3C-DTF)

Fifteen years of the tropEd Masters in International Health programme: what has it delivered? Results of an alumni survey of masters students in international health

L. Gerstel1, P. A. C. Zwanikken1, A. Hoffman2, C. Diederichs3, M. Borchert3 and B. Peterhans2

1 Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2 Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
3 Institute of Tropical Medicine and International Health, Charite – Universit€atsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany